Direct assessments of learning achievement

With reference to Law No. 30/2003 on National Education System, Chapter XVI, the evaluation of students’ achievement is conducted by teachers. This evaluation can be used to monitor the process, progress, and to improve students’ achievement . Whereas, the evaluation of students’ learning achievement at the end of the program is conducted by Center for Education Assessment (CEA) for Junior and Senior Secondary Schools. In the near future, this evaluation will be conducted by independent body known as National Education Standard Body as it is stated in the Government Regulation No. 19/ 2005.

The assessments of students’ learning achievement at primary education is conducted at the school level in the forms of: (1) summative test given to students at each grade and it is mandatory; (2) school examination is conducted by schools under the supervision of District Office of Education.

The subject matters assessed in both tests include: civics education, religion, Indonesian language, mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, music and arts, physical education, and local content subjects like local language and traditional arts. Continue reading



Teachers represent by far the most significant investment in public sector budgets.  Preparing teachers begins with the selection of those who are to enter teacher training.  Most governments have set standards that vary with the kind of schooling for which the training is designed.  Both in developing and developed countries there is a temptation to lower these standards.  In the developing world, it often stems from a need to attract large numbers of teachers in order to expand access to education quickly and reduce class size.  In the industrialized world, some countries face aging teaching forces and shortages of people interested in a teaching career, especially in mathematics, foreign languages, sciences, business studies and the technology fields, including information and communication technology.  All governments face a balancing act.  Expenditure on education is often subject to tight fiscal constraints, and teachers’ salaries and allowances typically account for two-thirds (often much more) of current public expenditure on education. Continue reading